Friday, August 28, 2020

Theory of Consumer Behavior

Section 4 †Theory of Consumer Behavior Economics 11 †UPLB Prepared by T. B. Paris, Jr. December 11, 2007 Theory of Consumer Behavior ? ? ? Valuable for understanding the interest side of the market. Utility †measure of fulfillment got from the utilization of an item †¦. estimation units ? utils Utility ideas ? ? cardinal utility †accept that we can dole out qualities for utility, (Jevons, Walras, and Marshall). E. g. , get 100 utils from eating a cut of pizza ordinal utility methodology †doesn't dole out qualities, rather works with a positioning of inclinations. Pareto, Hicks, Slutsky) Total utility and negligible utility ? ? Complete utility (TU) †the general degree of fulfillment got from devouring a decent or administration Marginal utility (MU) extra fulfillment that an individual gets from expending an extra unit of a decent or administration. ? TU MU = ? Q Total utility and minor utility Example (Table 4. 1): Q 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TU 0 20 27 32 3 5 34 30 36 MU â€20 7 5 3 0 - 1 - 4 ? ? ? ? TU, when all is said in done, increments with Q sooner or later, TU can begin falling with Q see Q = 6) If TU is expanding, MU > 0 From Q = 1 onwards, MU is declining ? guideline of reducing minimal utility ? As increasingly more of a decent are expended, the procedure of utilization will (sooner or later) yield littler and littler augmentations to utility Total Utility Curve TU 35 Total utility(in utils) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Quantity 6 Q Figure 4. 1 Marginal Utility Curve MU Marginal utility (in utils) 20 15 10 5 0 - 5 Figure 4. 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quantity Q Consumer Equilibrium ? ?Up until this point, we have accepted that any measure of merchandise and ventures are consistently accessible for utilization as a general rule, shoppers face imperatives (salary and costs): Limited customers pay or financial plan ? Merchandise can be acquired at a cost ? Some disentangling suspicions ? ? ? ? Consumer’s objective: to augment his /her utility subject to pay requirement 2 merchandise (X, Y) Prices Px, Py are fixed Consumer’s salary (I) is given Consumer Equilibrium ? Minimal utility per peso ? extra utility got from spending the following peso on the great MU per peso = PConsumer Equilibrium ? Enhancing condition: MU X MU Y = PX PY ? In the event that MU X MU Y > PX PY ? spend more on great X and less of Y Simple Illustration ? Assume: X = fishball Y = siomai ? Accept: PX = 2 PY = 10 Numerical Illustration Qx 1 2 3 4 5 6 TUX 30 39 45 50 54 56 MUX 30 9 6 5 4 2 MUx Px 15 4. 5 3 2. 5 2 1 QY 1 2 3 4 5 6 TUY 50 105 148 178 198 213 MUY 50 55 43 30 20 15 MUy Py 5. 5 4. 3 2 1. 5 ? ? 2 potential ideal positions Combination A: ? X = 3 and Y = 4 ? TU = TUX + TUY = 45 + 178 = 223 ? Mix B: ? ? X = 5 and Y = 5 TU = TUX + TUY = 54 + 198 = 252 ? Nearness of 2 potential balance positions recommends that we have to think about salary. To do so let us analyze how much every customer spends for every blend. Consumption per blend ? ? All out consumption = PX X + PY Y Combination A: 3(2) + 4(10) = 46 ? Blend B: 5(2) + 5(10) = 60 ? Situations: If consumer’s pay = 46, at that point the ideal is given by mix A. .†¦Combination B isn't moderate ? In the event that the consumer’s pay = 60, at that point the ideal is given by Combination B†¦. Mix An is moderate however it yields a lower level of utility ? end

Saturday, August 22, 2020

“Habit is a great deadener”. In what ways does Waiting for Godot illustrate this idea? Essay

Propensity and routine structure a significant piece of the play Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett. The play, a renowned result of the ‘Theatre of the Absurd’, is portrayed by a round structure which doesn’t lead anyplace, monotonous discourse and a general ludicrousness. It observes two men, Vladimir and Estragon, who spend the whole two acts hanging tight for Godot. The schedules they create all through the play are for the most part an aftereffect of their endeavors to take a break. Propensities, for example, tinkering with articles and recounting stories become some portion of their everyday practice and appear to be a decent method to traverse the pausing. Be that as it may, as Vladimir himself says, â€Å"habit is an incredible deadener† (Beckett 105) and in the end their propensities stifle them. The term â€Å"deadener† suggests that the propensities make the characters much progressively exhausted and that as opposed to helping them, they lead to their destruction and make their lives significantly increasingly unimportant. This exposition will examine the propensities created by the different characters and investigate whether they to be sure outline propensities being a deadener. Through this, it will likewise talk about what Beckett is attempting to demonstrate about propensity in human life as a rule. One propensity that is created in Waiting for Godot by both Estragon and Pozzo is tinkering with objects. This propensity is depicted for the most part through the stage headings and is hence visual activity rather than words. Estragon utilizes items, for example, his boot so as to breathe easy. â€Å"Silence. Estragon is tinkering with his boot again† (Beckett 37). In this stage bearing, Beckett places Estragon’s fiddling inside a quiet which shows how he attempts to fill the void by playing with his boot. This propensity is framed out of fatigue and along these lines intended to ease it. Through this, Beckett is by all accounts remarking on how individuals depend on propensities so as to give their lives importance and security. Be that as it may, rather than making life additionally fascinating, the continued fiddling just strengthens the tedium in the play making the characters much increasingly exhausted. Pozzo then again fiddles for the most part with his watch, â€Å"cuddling his watch to his ear [†¦] he returns his watch in his pocket† (Beckett 37). He more than once takes his watch out, counsels it, takes care of it, and gets it out again in a routinely way. He doesn't just do this to sit back; it is likewise a route for him to demonstrate his prevalence through the material items he claims. It is significant for him to constantly declare his capacity and position. In any case, rather than giving him power, this propensity inevitably adds to his destruction. In the subsequent demonstration, Pozzo gets visually impaired and loses all his capacity. A second path for Pozzo to demonstrate his capacity and look for consideration is by performing which likewise gets constant. At a few events, Pozzo takes on another job and starts acting so as to engage the others and become the focal point of consideration. He ordinarily performs sensational monologs, â€Å"tirelessly deluges of red and white light it starts to lose its effulgence† (Beckett 38). This sentence plainly shows his smooth style picked to dazzle his crowd and again demonstrate his predominance. The shifted language structure of this specific discourse, running from convoluted beautiful sentences to short unrefined expressions, makes it intriguing to his crowd and shows how he is to be sure acting. Each time he takes on a job, he guarantees that everybody is focusing on him since that is his definitive objective. Schedules are a path for individuals to characterize themselves by what they constantly do. Be that as it may, once more, this propensity ends up being a deadener which is outlined by Pozzo’s abrupt difference in status in the subsequent demonstration. Out of nowhere he is visually impaired and nobody focuses on him any longer. He more than once requests help however nobody reacts and this demonstrates how his propensities stifled him. A comparative propensity to that of performing is recounting stories. It is one of the principal propensities to be presented in the play and is again a path for them to occupy the time. In the start of the play, Vladimir endeavors to recount to his first story, however Estragon over and again intrudes on him: â€Å"two cheats, executed simultaneously as Our Savior. One â€/our what?† (Beckett 6). This propensity is very nearly a prompt deadener as it neglects to accomplish its objective of taking a break and giving them something to do. Estragon’s interferences sabotage Vladimir’s abilities as a narrator and transform the narratives into inane, roundabout discussions. Rather than narrating turning into a daily schedule to give their lives meaning, it turns into a support of the negligibility of their reality demonstrating that they aren’t going anyplace. None of the schedules or propensities they create is making a difference. They are in reality doing the inverse and exacerbating things. They are as yet stuck sitting tight for Godot and consistently will be. Holding up in itself could be considered as a stifling propensity. It is certainly the overwhelming propensity in the play as they are consistently pausing. The expression â€Å"we’re sitting tight for Godot† (Beckett 51), which additionally motivates the title, is the most rehashed sentence in the whole play. The way that it is rehashed so often shows how frantic and negligible their circumstance has become. The reiteration of the expression accentuates its significance to the general play in light of the fact that despite the fact that it is straightforward, it summarizes the sum of the play. This propensity is apparently the most stifling of all as it keeps them from leaving and going on with their lives. It compels them to wait and consequently removes all the importance from their reality, reducing them to minor observers as opposed to participators throughout everyday life. A last propensity that Estragon and Vladimir create is that of remaining together. In remaining together, they endeavor to maintain a strategic distance from the uncertainty of being desolate and attempt to utilize each other to affirm that their lives do have meaning. â€Å"I felt lonely†, says Vladimir when Estragon nods off (Beckett 10). This straightforward sentence is the very embodiment of why they build up the propensity for remaining together. Despite the fact that Estragon is truly there, Vladimir has nobody to converse with any longer and this disturbs him. They need each other regardless of whether they don’t consistently get along so as to affirm each other’s presence. At the scarcest danger of being disregarded, they alarm and in this manner remain all together of need. The above citation conjures sentiment in the crowd as they understand how solid their dependence has arrived another and accordingly how low they have sunk as people. They are attempting to stay away from instability through their propensities, yet Beckett is inferring this is unthinkable and that propensities will prompt tedium and irrelevance in your life. Rather than benefitting from one another, remaining together keeps them from pushing ahead and in this way stifles them. Propensity is surely a deadener and Waiting for Godot outlines this from multiple points of view. Every one of the four characters in the play have been stifled by their propensities and rather than their standard sparing them, they caused their ruin. It appears as though Beckett is attempting to outline how propensity influences individuals in actuality. It is unavoidable as individuals to create propensities. It is practically similar to a characteristic system with the end goal for us to maintain a strategic distance from ludicrousness throughout everyday life. Be that as it may, Beckett suggests, one needs to acknowledge silliness as it is a piece of life. Propensities won’t give us the security we need, they will just carry tedium and inevitable stifling to our lives as occurred in Waiting for Godot. This have is clearly influence of absurdist theater and along these lines a distortion, anyway Beckett is by all accounts relating it to genuine to a limited degree. He is by all accounts encouraging to keep from creating propensities and rather acknowledge the irregularity that unavoidably goes with life. Work refered to: Beckett, Samuel. Sitting tight for Godot. Forest Press: New York, 1982.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Racism in America and the Struggle for Equal Opportunity Essay

Prejudice has made uncommon harm throughout the years and proceeds with mess major up in today’s society. Bigotry is segregation or partiality dependent on race or ethnicity. Prejudice shows from numerous points of view including negative musings and racial slurs. Prejudice incorporates these pieces of dislike, yet additionally injurious conduct and serious segregation. This serious segregation influences people’s families, employment, and capacity to succeed. In spite of the fact that prejudice has not been totally abrogated, the United States has gained some ground as a nation to improve race relations. The U.S. is done having common wars over bondage and more non-white individuals are accessing lucrative, progressively significant, and incredible positions. While one may recognize that bigotry has improved enormously from Civil War times, they should likewise appreciate that there is considerably more work to be done in America to improve our relations among races with the goal that the playing field is leveled for everyone. A definitive objective is to have equivalent open door among all races and ethnicities. There is as yet institutional prejudice where it makes it hard for ethnic minorities to progress. For instance, non-white individuals are underrepresented in the U.S. Congress, on Wall Street, and in driving enormous organizations and associations. To arrive at this extreme objective of equivalent chance, individuals must be capable perceive their own biases. Numerous people subliminally have partialities against other people who are not the same as them somehow or another. When individuals can recognize their own partialities, at exactly that point can a general public started to change people’s hearts and psyches.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Application Master s College Essay Samples Diaries

The Application Master 's College Essay Samples Diaries The purchase price depends upon the size and urgency. Actually, prior to making an order it is possible to secure a price quote on your essay. The total format of your essay, for example, font size and margins, will solely count on the instructions offered to you. Be certain your essay explains everything the reader has to know to comprehend what you were facing. Generally speaking, the very first, setup, section of the essay ought to be shorter, because it is not going to be focused on what you were doing. Because this essay will necessarily have to devote some time on other folks, you should locate a great proportion of them-time and me-time. In this instance, attempt to hit the minimal words required and be sure that the essay you will write is packed with relevant info and beneficial details. One of the most difficult facets of college life is finances. We wish to get acquainted with your quirks and your personal personality traits,'' he states. Get your creative juices flowing by brainstorming all the potential ideas you can imagine to tackle your essay question. It doesn't matter to us, whether you're too busy on the job concentrating on a passion undertaking, or simply tired of a seemingly infinite stream of assignments. When you start to compose your college application essay, think about all the things which make you the person that you're. You are going to be surrounded by writing professionals throughout the plan of order placement, and the moment you opt to purchase essay and pick an allocated writer, things are likely to get even more exciting. This defining experience also taught me I can really make a difference. These instances may lead to rush decisions like writing a college essay immediately without reading the instructions that are made by the academic institution. For a beginning, the typical application essay topics need you to use language that's totally free from language flaws and grammatical mistakes. These forms of essays are guaranteed to doze off your readers. The essay is intended to be a revealing look within your ideas and feelings. These seven sample essays respond to a range of thought-provoking questions. The very first step to any essay writing is to choose a subject of interest. Just enable the ideas come out. There are a few things you can do in your essay to be noticed and get accepted. For more help, have a look at our article on creating fantastic tips for your essay topic. Writing the college application essay can be among the most daunting sections of applying to college. Upcoming college students might also be requested to compose a college essay for a portion of their first requirements. When writing a scholarship application, it's critical to accentuate how it is possible to add to the college you're aiming for. Colleges are more inclined to admit students who can articulate certain explanations for why the school is a superb fit about them beyond its reputation or ranking on any list. The Common Application allows you to apply to more or less 700 distinct colleges. Advanced training in such a nation is very quickly turning into a need from the industry enterprise team in place of an extravagance. Work with your students to assist them with this important part of their application. Your application essay will be able to help you stick out from the remainder of the candidates and get noticed by the admission board. The expanding popularity of the net has played a big part within this paradigm shift, as a result of simple fact that papers are now able to be placed online quickly for the world to see. As you pay for homework, we provide those options at no cost. In case you realize the vocation way you'd like to just take you can come across a two-year diploma application that could have you out of college along with in a work noticeably sooner than a four-year software will allow. The Hidden Facts on Application Master's College Essay Samples It's simple to p oint out an essay that's been written solely for the interest of it. Or you'll be able to view 18 essays all on a single page. Before you commence writing your college essay, you may choose to see the essay examplesA that we've listed for you, so that you may have more idea on what things to put in the college essay you will create. Put some personality in your essay. At our essay support, essays are always delivered in a brief moment. An essay can be entirely heartfeltand terrible. Sometimes it is simpler to compose the whole essay, then think about the ideal introduction. If you are in need of a well-crafted essay, then you can depend on us to deliver.

Friday, May 15, 2020

MLKs Speech and Its Effect on Local Civil Rights Movement

MLKs Speech and Its Effect on Local Civil Rights Movement The white man won’t hand out integration on a silver platter. The history of the civil rights is often told on the national scale or following well-known figures and direct-action events such as the sit-in campaign and Rosa Parks’ famous stand on a Montgomery bus. More recently, historians have focused their research on the local level, revealing events that are not prominent, but integral to the larger scale history of civil rights in the United States. Although national power determined the â€Å"deliberate speed† of desegregation legislation, local communities determined the actual speed in which they would be enforced. Some communities pressed for immediate social change†¦show more content†¦Following the momentum of the boycott, King founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference with the purpose of enabling â€Å"the region’s Negro leaders to plan activities parallel to those of the NAACP.† The first goal of the organization was to register two million new Negro voters before the 1960 presidenti al election and King began the summer of 1958 travelling to spread the message of equality and nonviolence throughout the nation. One week prior to King’s speech in Columbus, his request to meet with President Dwight Eisenhower in order to address the President’s â€Å"recent plea for continued patience† and previous promises â€Å"to meet with Negro leaders† was accepted, and the conference enjoyed moderate media attention. On May 29, 1958, King, along with Lester Granger of the National Urban League, Roy Wilkins of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and A. Philip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, shared time with the President to discuss the rights of Negro Americans. The meeting was ultimately unproductive and King immediately assessed the meeting with Eisenhower: â€Å"I think he believes it would be a fine thing to have an integrated society but I think he probably feels that the more you push it, the more tension it will create so you just wait 50 or 100 years and it will work itself out. I don’t think he feels like being a crusader for integration.† Although King was clearly despondent about

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay - 1546 Words

Their Eyes Were Watching God Often in stories of self-realization and self-love, there is an incident that is often overlooked. In Their Eyes Were Watching God, such is the case. While many people tend to believe that Janie’s relationship with Teacake was the central time when she realized who she was, Her marriage with Joe Starks is often ignored in the big picture. Janie realized what she didn’t want and not to settle and that helped her accept Teacake later on in the book. Jody’s ideals did not mesh with a Janie and caused a lot of conflict. Throughout their twenty-year marriage, three events symbolized the rift between Jody and Janie; The first was his refusing to allow Janie to speak at the towns opening ceremony,†¦show more content†¦This was the first of many times when Jody would refuse to allow Janie to speak in public. He also banned Janie from participating in the gossip that went on at the stoop. Janie always wanted to at least be able to participate in those, but Jody forbade her. He considered it lowly and something that a woman of Janie’s stature should be above. â€Å"†¦Ah can’t see what uh woman of your stability would want tuh be treasurin’ all dat gum-grease from folks dat don’t even own de house dey sleep in†¦They’s jus’ some humans playin’ round de toes of Time† (54). Jody continued to refuse Janie to socialize with the town. After Jody freed the mule and it passed, He didn’t even allow her to go to the draggin-out. Even though the main reason he bought that mule was because of Janie’s reaction to the way they treated the poor animal. Socially, Jody smothered Janie an did not allow her to participate in any activities outside of the store and that forced Janie to bottle up a lot of emotions and other feelings. Another one of the things Jody did that really hurt Janie was when Joe would constantly ridicule her and the like. Essentially, Joe made remarks about Janie not being able to think for herself as well as other little sarcastic, ignorant comments. And Jody actually believed things like women cant think for themselves. â€Å"Dat’s cause you need tellin’†¦somebody got to think for women and chillins and cows. I god, they sho don’t think none themselves†Show MoreRelatedTheir Eyes Were Watching God1064 Words   |  5 Pagessignificant than death. In Zora Neale Hurston’s famous novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, the main character Janie Crawford is plagued by the deaths of loved ones. Janie moves from caregiver to caregiver searching for true love and happiness, only to have it stripped away from her once she finds it in her third husband Tea Cake. At the end of the novel, having realized true love and loss, Janie is a whole woman. Their Ey es Were Watching God portrays the growth of the human spirit through both the emotionalRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God1780 Words   |  8 Pagesshort story â€Å"Sweat† and novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, the focus is on women who want better lives but face difficult struggles before gaining them. The difficulties involving men which Janie and Delia incur result from or are exacerbated by the intersection of their class, race, and gender, which restrict each woman for a large part of her life from gaining her independence. Throughout a fair part of Zora Neal Hurston’s novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Janie’s low class create problemsRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God932 Words   |  4 PagesJanie Crawford: The Woman Whose Clothing Conveys Her Relationships In Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God, the protagonist, Janie, endures two marriages before finding true love. In each of Janie’s marriages, a particular article of clothing is used to symbolically reflect, not only her attitude at different phases in her life, but how she is treated in each relationship. In Janie’s first marriage with Logan Killicks, an apron is used to symbolize the obligation in her marriage. â€Å"Read More Eyes Were Watching God Essay711 Words   |  3 Pages Their Eyes Were Watching God provides an enlightening look at the journey of a quot;complete, complex, undiminished human beingquot;, Janie Crawford. Her story, based on self-exploration, self-empowerment, and self-liberation, details her loss and attainment of her innocence and freedom as she constantly learns and grows from her experiences with gender issues, racism, and life. The story centers around an important theme; that personal discoveries and life experiences help a person findRead MoreAnalysis Of Their Eyes Were Watching God 1061 Words   |  5 PagesDivision: Janie Crawford in Their Eyes Were Watching God Their Eyes Were Watching God was written in 1937 by Zora Neale Hurston. This story follows a young girl by the name of Janie Crawford. Janie Crawford lived with her grandmother in Eatonville, Florida. Janie was 16 Years old when her grandmother caught her kissing a boy out in the yard. After seeing this her grandmother told her she was old enough to get married, and tells her she has found her a husband by the name of Logan. Logan was a muchRead More Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay1757 Words   |  8 Pages Their Eyes Were Watching God Book Report 1. Title: Their Eyes Were Watching God 2. Author/Date Written: Zora Neale Hurston/1937 3. Country of Author: 4. Characters Janie Mae Crawford- The book’s main character. She is a very strong willed, independent person. She is able to defy a low class, unhappy life because of these factors, even though the environment that she grew up and lived in was never on her side. Pheoby Watson – Janie’s best friend in Eatonville. Pheoby is the only towns person whoRead MoreWhose eyes were watching God?1400 Words   |  6 PagesWhose eyes were watching God? In the movie Their Eyes Were Watching God, Oprah Winfrey manipulates events that happened in the book by Zora Neale Hurston. Oprah morphs many relationships in the movie Their Eyes Were Watching God. She changes the role of gender, and also makes changes in Janie’s character strength. Oprah also changes the symbolism in the movie to where some important symbols in the book change to less important roles. Oprah changes many important events in the book Their Eyes WereRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God Essay724 Words   |  3 PagesTHEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD ESSAY  ¬Ã‚ ¬ Janie Crawford is surrounded by outward influences that contradict her independence and personal development. These outward influences from society, her grandma, and even significant others contribute to her curiosity. Tension builds between outward conformity and inward questioning, allowing Zora Neal Hurston to illustrate the challenge of choice and accountability that Janie faces throughout the novel. Janie’s Grandma plays an important outward influenceRead MoreEssay on Their Eyes Were Watching God921 Words   |  4 PagesTheir Eyes Were Watching God An Analysis So many people in modern society have lost their voices. Laryngitis is not the cause of this sad situation-- they silence themselves, and have been doing so for decades. For many, not having a voice is acceptable socially and internally, because it frees them from the responsibility of having to maintain opinions. For Janie Crawford, it was not: she finds her voice among those lost within the pages of Zora Neale Hurston’s famed novel, Their Eyes Were WatchingRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God By Zora Hurston Essay1233 Words   |  5 PagesHurston In the novel â€Å"Their Eyes Were Watching God† by Zora Neal Hurston is about a young woman named Janie Crawford who goes on a journey of self discovery to find her independence. The book touches on many themes like gender roles, relations, independence and racism however racism isn’t mainly focused upon in the book which some writers felt should have been. Some felt that the representation of black characters should have been better role models. Zora Hurston’s novel wasn’t like other black literature

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Media Content Analysis of Espn free essay sample

ESPN demonstrates how a monopoly works in the contemporary media landscape, a landscape in which the cost of information is diminishing and the necessity of diversified revenue streams is increasing. By distributing content across multiple platforms, like their website, their television programs, their magazine and their mobile applications, ESPN maintains a steady position as the leader in sports news. No competitor has managed to knock ESPN off its horse, primarily because ESPN can outbid practically any other network or media group for content. The media groups of individual sports leagues like Major League Baseball pose an interesting threat to ESPN. These groups develop their own networks designed to produce content for one sport only, like baseball. They’re capable of offering products that ESPN can’t due to the amount and variation of content that ESPN covers. Fortunately for ESPN, the idea of partnering and revenue sharing is appealing to these networks due to ESPN’s wide audience base. What makes ESPN special is their ability to deliver a set of experiences that other networks cannot compete with. When content becomes homogenous between networks, it’s the availability and delivery of the content that makes a difference, and right now, no one delivers sports news like ESPN. In today’s media landscape, it’s extremely difficult to dominate a market. It’s difficult to even stay solvent for many news organizations. Bankruptcy, or the threat of bankruptcy, haunts just about every major newspaper in the country, including the Chicago Tribune, who filed for Chapter 11 at the end of 2008. Broadcast audiences in most large cities are divided up among the big network affiliates like ABC, NBC and FOX, and magazine subscriptions and revenues continue to decline. Despite uncertain times, one media group maintains a monopoly on their market. Often referred to as a â€Å"cartel,† Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN) has dominated the sports media industry across multiple platforms for decades. Seemingly always multiple steps ahead of their largest competitors, CBS and NBC Sports, ESPN has developed mobile apps, a network of television channels, a documentary series and other original content that simply overwhelms their audience. Being the â€Å"Worldwide Leader in Sports† comes with its criticisms, of course. ESPN is often accused of biased reporting and engaging in conflicts of interest, notably, their development of the Longhorn Network with the University of Texas. Regardless, consumers turn to ESPN for sports news and content. In their mission statement, they say they endeavor â€Å"To serve sports fans wherever sports are watched, listened to, discussed, debated, read about or played,† and that â€Å"People are our most valuable resource, and care and respect for employees and each other will always be at the heart of our operations. † ESPN is in the unique position of being the people’s champion of the sports media landscape. Since its inception in September of 1979, ESPN has appealed to consumers on a more conversational, personable level than most other sports outlets or media organizations. The network has developed personalities like Chris â€Å"Boomer† Berman and Stuart Scott who involve their audience by combining references to pop-culture with sports. As a result, ESPN has developed as an incredibly strong brand, known for being â€Å"cool. † Competitors like CBS and NBC Sports are certainly well established brands of their own, but their brands aren’t as â€Å"hip† as ESPN. By generating cross-platform content with ESPN the Magazine, ESPN. com and the more recent ESPN ScoreCenter mobile app, ESPN has carved up the sports media landscape to their liking, dictating how information is disseminated. While ESPN has done an amazing job up until now, they face the danger of losing specialized audiences to channels like the MLB Network and NFL Network who siphon off consumers with very specific sports interests. With companies like Major League Baseball Advanced Media (BAM) pioneering new applications like â€Å"MLB at Bat† and inking new television deals that revolutionize the way baseball fans follow the national pastime, ESPN has to be concerned. It’s unlikely ESPN will ever lose all of their broadcasting rights to MLB games, their audience is just too large, but once more baseball fans realize their interests might be better served with MLB. om and the MLB Network, ESPN could see declines in ratings and viewership to programming like. Sunday Night Baseball. In order to prevent that, ESPN has to consider mergers and collaborations. While the MLB might not be interested, yet, ESPN has already reached out to the NFL Network about the possibility of combining their ESPN Classics channel with the NFL Network. By doing so, the long arm of ESPN could bolster viewership and the specialized content of the NFL Network could expand advertising revenues. Whether a similar deal could be made with the MLB Network, which, as the MLBAM case study stated, â€Å"is the gold standard among sports leagues,† is uncertain, but often these specialized networks see themselves as broadcast partners, not competitors of ESPN. By Harold Vogel’s own definition in his text Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis, ESPN is a monopoly. There are no close substitutes for their output, they set prices, and there are barriers that prevent potential competitors from entering the market. In an article that appeared in the Sports Business Journal Daily in 2009 entitled â€Å"Industry wonders who will challenge ESPN,† staff writer John Ourand says that if a competitor were to emerge, they would have to do it between 2011 and 2014, when many of the major sports leagues TV deals expire. Regardless of expiration dates, ESPN is capable of outbidding just about anyone when it comes to content packages. They outbid FOX by $100 million in 2009 to secure the rights to the College Football Bowl Series through 2014. ESPN’s foothold on the sports media landscape is intimidating. Effectively, ESPN has constructed barriers to entry because no one is capable of competing with them on the same level across multiple platforms. Additionally, they’re usually willing to share revenues with other networks if it means increased viewership on their own channels. Vogel defines entertainment as that which produces a pleasurable and satisfying experience and cites Becker (1965) and DeSerpa (1971) for suggesting that the demand for leisure is affected in a complicated way by the cost of time both to produce and to consume. ESPN does a marvelous job maximizing the return on the amount of time spent consuming their products. It takes a mere moment to absorb the final score of the Chicago Bulls game via the ScoreCenter app. It takes just minutes to read an article about the game on ESPN. com and a consumer can spend upwards of thirty minutes watching SportsCenter where they can see highlights of the game and hear an analysis of it. In chapter two of Vogel’s text, it is explained that distribution power trumps control of content: â€Å"The best content in the world is not worth nything if it cannot be made readily available to audiences. † So, what is the result of the strongest distribution power and the best content in the world? The result is ESPN, a monopoly. The breakdown of gatekeeping that has affected so many media companies hasn’t resulted in a loss of control or profitability for ESPN. Instead, ESPN has embraced the greater empowerment of the user that Vogel’s speaks of. Increased â€Å"participation, engagement, connectivity, customization, personalization and collaboration† between users and the content ESPN creates has actually helped ESPN maintain and grow their audience. Viewers now send in videos to SportsCenter that are considered for segments like the â€Å"Top 10† and the â€Å"Not Top 10,† which highlight the best and worst of the week in sports. SportsCenter, ESPN. com and some of their original programming like SportsNation rely heavily on audience polls. SportsNation, in particular, is a program almost completely dedicated to polling fans about topics like the best slam dunks, touchdowns, even the best athlete’s beard (James Harden, Oklahoma City Thunder). By engaging their viewers, ESPN continues to improve the user experience, which Vogel explains is what media companies are actually selling, a set of experiences. Fantasy sports are another experience ESPN is trying to sell. ESPN’s biggest competitor in the fantasy sports market is Yahoo!. It is one frontier where ESPN hasn’t completely dominated, but that doesn’t mean they’re not trying. Fantasy Sports are now incorporated into their original programming, giving the average player insights as to who to â€Å"start† and who to â€Å"bench† for a particular game. It’s just one more way for ESPN to engage their audience and diversify the digital distribution of their products. I think ESPN is an exemplary media content producer. In fact, I aspire to work for them one day. I acknowledge the potential issues associated with being considered a â€Å"cartel,† but I subscribe to the notion that if you can’t beat them, join them. I’m not entirely convinced of their biased reporting, either. ESPN employs a diverse variety of reporters who frequently disagree with one another. Additionally, they have provided a platform for female reporters pioneering their way into sports journalism. The latest irritations from viewers revolve around over-reporting of certain topics, like Tim Tebow and Jeremy Lin. I personally don’t mind. ESPN does an excellent job engaging their viewers, diversifying content across multiple platforms, and embracing and monetizing digital distribution of information. I do think a competitor or two will come along in the near future, but I don’t think the downfall of ESPN is in anywhere in sight. Viewers love ESPN because it feels like home, and no one is ready to move just yet.